Inhibitors of Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis
A number of drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis. Most important are vancomycin, which targets monomer polymerization; and the β-lactams, e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins, which block polymer cross-linking. β-lactam antibacterial agents also activate autolysins. Autolysins punch holes in bacterial cell wall and disrupt its integrity. Transpeptidase antagonism and autolysis prevent bacterial self-maintenance, i.e., remodeling and repair; and replication.
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics, derived originally from common moulds known as Penicillium moulds; which includes penicillin G, penicillin V, procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin.
The cephalosporins are bactericidal in susceptible organisms. Most are primarily active against aerobic gram-positive cocci and bacilli.