Indian Polity MCQs and Answers | Historical Background of Indian Constitution

Solved Indian Polity MCQs and Answers with Explanations and Free PDF | Historical Background of Indian Constitution | M. Laxmikant

1. Before 1947, British India was consisted of how many provinces and the Princely states?

A. 10

B. 11

C. 12

D. 13

Answer: 11

Explanation: Before 1947, India was divided into two main entities – The British India which consisted of 11 provinces and the Princely states ruled by Indian princes under subsidiary alliance policy.

2. Indian government is a

A. Monarchy

B. Oligarchy

C. Autocracy

D. Democracy

Answer: Democracy

Explanation: Indian democracy is a Parliamentary form of democracy where the executive is responsible to the Parliament. The Parliament has two houses – Loksabha and Rajyasabha. Also, the type of governance is Federal, ie there is separate executive and legislature at Center and States.

3. The Indian parliament has two houses called

A. Congress and Rajyasabha

B. Congress and Loksabha

C. White House and Congress

D. Loksabha and Rajyasabha

Answer: Loksabha and Rajyasabha

Explanation: The Parliament has two houses – Loksabha and Rajyasabha. Also, the type of governance is Federal, ie there is separate executive and legislature at Center and States.

4. Which of the following Act was the first step taken by the British Parliament to control and regulate the affairs of the East India Company in India?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Pitt’s India Act of 1784

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Regulating Act of 1773

Explanation: The Regulating Act of 1773 was the first step taken by the British Parliament to control and regulate the affairs of the East India Company in India.

5. Which of the following act was designated the Governor of Bengal (Fort William) as the Governor-General (of Bengal)?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Pitt’s India Act of 1784

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Regulating Act of 1773

Explanation: The Regulating Act of 1773 designated the Governor of Bengal (Fort William) as the Governor-General (of Bengal). Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of Bengal.

6. Who became the first Governor-General of Bengal?

A. Warren Hastings

B. Lord William Bentick

C. Lord Canning

D. Lord Ripon

Answer: Warren Hastings

Explanation: The Regulating Act of 1773 designated the Governor of Bengal (Fort William) as the Governor-General (of Bengal). Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of Bengal.

7. Which act Distinguished between commercial and political functions of the company?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Pitt’s India Act of 1784

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Pitt’s India Act of 1784

Explanation: The Pitt’s India Act of 1784 distinguished between commercial and political functions of the company. Court of Directors for Commercial functions and Board of Control for political affairs. It reduced the strength of the Governor General’s council to three members.

8. Which act placed the Indian affairs under the direct control of the British Government?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Pitt’s India Act of 1784

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Pitt’s India Act of 1784

Explanation: The Pitt’s India Act of 1784 placed the Indian affairs under the direct control of the British Government. The companies territories in India were called “the British possession in India”. Governor’s councils were established in Madras and Bombay.

9. Which act terminated the Company’s monopoly over Indian trade?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Pitt’s India Act of 1784

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Charter Act of 1813

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1813 terminated the Company’s monopoly over Indian trade and trade with India open to all British subjects.

10. Which act placed Governor-General (of Bengal) became the Governor-General of India?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Charter Act of 1833

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1833 placed the Governor-General (of Bengal) became the Governor-General of India. The first Governor-General of India was Lord William Bentick. This was the final step towards centralization in British India.

11. Who was the first Governor-General of India?

A. Warren Hastings

B. Lord William Bentick

C. Lord Canning

D. Lord Ripon

Answer: Lord William Bentick

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1833 placed the Governor-General (of Bengal) became the Governor-General of India. The first Governor-General of India was Lord William Bentick. This was the final step towards centralization in British India.

12. Which act was the final step towards centralization in British India?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Charter Act of 1833

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1833 placed the Governor-General (of Bengal) became the Governor-General of India. The first Governor-General of India was Lord William Bentick. This was the final step towards centralization in British India. Beginning of a Central legislature for India as the act also took away legislative powers of Bombay and Madras provinces.

13. Which Act ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Charter Act of 1833

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1833 ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body and it became a purely administrative body.

14. Which Act separated the legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s Council?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Charter Act of 1853

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1853 separated the legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s Council. There were 6 members in Central legislative council. Four out of six members were appointed by the provisional governments of Madras, Bombay, Bengal and Agra.

15. Which Act introduced a system of open competition as the basis for the recruitment of civil servants of the Company?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Charter Act of 1853

Answer: Charter Act of 1853

Explanation: The Charter Act of 1853 introduced a system of open competition as the basis for the recruitment of civil servants of the Company (Indian Civil Service opened for all).

16. Who was the first Viceroy of India?

A. Warren Hastings

B. Lord William Bentick

C. Lord Canning

D. Lord Ripon

Answer: Lord Canning

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1858 vested with complete authority and control over the Indian administration through the Viceroy as his agent. The Governor-General was made the Viceroy of India. Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India.

17. Which Act Abolished Board of Control and Court of Directors?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Charter Act of 1813

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1858

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1858 vested with complete authority and control over the Indian administration through the Viceroy as his agent. The Governor-General was made the Viceroy of India. Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India. The act abolished Board of Control and Court of Directors.

18. Which Act established the Legislative councils in Center and provinces?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Indian Councils Act of 1861

Explanation: The Indian Councils Act of 1861 introduced for the first time Indian representation in the institutions like Viceroy’s executive+legislative council (non-official). 3 Indians entered the Legislative council. Legislative councils were established in Center and provinces.

19. Which Act accorded statutory recognition to the portfolio system?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. Charter Act of 1833

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Indian Councils Act of 1861

Explanation: The Indian Councils Act of 1861 provided that the Viceroy’s Executive Council should have some Indians as the non-official members while transacting the legislative businesses. It accorded statutory recognition to the portfolio system. Initiated the process of decentralisation by restoring the legislative powers to the Bombay and the Madras Provinces.

20. Which Act Introduced indirect elections (nomination) to India?

A. Regulating Act of 1773

B. India Council Act of 1892

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: India Council Act of 1892

Explanation: The India Council Act of 1892 introduced indirect elections (nomination). It enlarged the size of the legislative councils. It enlarged the functions of the Legislative Councils and gave them the power of discussing the Budget and addressing questions to the Executive.

21. Which Act is also known as the Morley- Minto Reforms?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. India Council Act of 1892

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Indian Councils Act of 1909

Explanation: The Indian Councils Act of 1909 is also known as the Morley- Minto Reforms. Direct elections to legislative councils; first attempt at introducing a representative and popular element. It changed the name of the Central Legislative Council to the Imperial Legislative Council.

22. Which Act changed the name of the Central Legislative Council to the Imperial Legislative Council?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. India Council Act of 1892

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Indian Councils Act of 1909

Explanation: The Indian Councils Act of 1909 changed the name of the Central Legislative Council to the Imperial Legislative Council. The member of the Central Legislative Council was increased to 60 from 16.

23. Which Act introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. India Council Act of 1892

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Indian Councils Act of 1909

Explanation: The Indian Councils Act of 1909 introduced a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’. Indians for the first time in Viceroys executive council. (Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, as the law member).

24. Which Act is also known as the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1919

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1919 is also known as the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. The Central subjects were demarcated and separated from those of the Provincial subjects.

25. Which Act introduced the scheme of dual governance, ‘Dyarchy’?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1919

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1919 introduced the scheme of dual governance, ‘Dyarchy’. Under the dyarchy system, the provincial subjects were divided into two parts – transferred and reserved. On reserved subjects, Governor was not responsible to the Legislative council.

26. Which Act introduced bicameralism at the center for the first time?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Indian Councils Act of 1861

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1919

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1919 introduced bicameralism at the center for the first time. Legislative Assembly with 140 members and Legislative council with 60 members. The Act also required that the three of the six members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council (other than Commander-in-Chief) were to be Indians.

27. Which Act provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation consisting of the Provinces and the Princely States as units?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Government of India Act of 1935

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1935

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation consisting of the Provinces and the Princely States as units, though the envisaged federation never came into being.

28. Which Act divided the powers between the Centre and the units into items of three lists?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Government of India Act of 1935

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1935

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1935 divided the powers between the Centre and the units into items of three lists namely the Federal List, the Provincial List and the Concurrent List. The Federal List for the Centre consisted of 59 items, the Provincial List for the provinces consisted of 54 items and the Concurrent List for both consisted of 36 items.

29. Which Act abolished the Dyarchy in the Provinces and introduced ‘Provincial Autonomy’?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Government of India Act of 1935

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1935

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1935 abolished the Dyarchy in the Provinces and introduced ‘Provincial Autonomy’. It provided for the adoption of Dyarchy at the Centre. Introduced bicameralism in 6 out of 11 Provinces. These six Provinces were Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Bihar, Madras and the United Province.

30. Which Act provided for the establishment of Federal Court?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Government of India Act of 1935

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1935

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for the establishment of Federal Court. It abolished the Dyarchy in the Provinces and introduced ‘Provincial Autonomy’. It provided for the adoption of Dyarchy at the Centre. Introduced bicameralism in 6 out of 11 Provinces. These six Provinces were Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Bihar, Madras and the United Province.

31. Which Act abolished the Council of India?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Government of India Act of 1935

D. Government of India Act of 1858

Answer: Government of India Act of 1935

Explanation: The Government of India Act of 1935 abolished the Council of India. It abolished the Dyarchy in the Provinces and introduced ‘Provincial Autonomy’. It provided for the adoption of Dyarchy at the Centre. Introduced bicameralism in 6 out of 11 Provinces. These six Provinces were Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Bihar, Madras and the United Province.

32. Which Act declared India as an Independent and Sovereign State?

A. Indian Councils Act of 1909

B. Government of India Act of 1919

C. Government of India Act of 1935

D. Indian Independence Act of 1947

Answer: Indian Independence Act of 1947

Explanation: The Indian Independence Act of 1947 declared India as an Independent and Sovereign State. It established responsible Governments at both the Centre and the Provinces. It designated the Viceroy India and the provincial Governors as the Constitutional (normal heads). It assigned dual functions (Constituent and Legislative) to the Constituent Assembly and declared this dominion legislature as a sovereign body.

33.  The Laws made before the Charter Act of 1833 were called as

A. Laws

B. Acts

C. Regulations

D. Rules

Answer: Regulations

Explanation: The Laws made before the Charter Act of 1833 were called as Regulations and those made after are called Acts.

34. Who created the office of District Collector in 1772?

A. Warren Hastings

B. Lord William Bentick

C. Lord Canning

D. Lord Ripon

Answer: Warren Hastings

Explanation: Lord Warren Hastings created the office of District Collector in 1772, but judicial powers were separated from District collector later by Cornwallis.

35. In which year Lord Ripon’s resolution was hailed as the ‘Magna Carta’ of local self-government?

A. 1880

B. 1882

C. 1890

D. 1892

Answer: 1882

Explanation: In 1882 Lord Ripon’s resolution was hailed as the ‘Magna Carta’ of local self-government. He is regarded as the ‘Father of local self-government in India’.

36. In which year Railway Budget was separated from the General Budget?

A. 1920

B. 1923

C. 1924

D. 1926

Answer: 1924

Explanation: In 1924, Railway Budget was separated from the General Budget based on the Acworth Committee report (1921).

37. In which of the following periods the British tried for the centralization of power?

A. From 1720 to 1800

B. From 1773 to 1858

C. From 1800 to 1900

D. From 1900 to 1947

Answer: From 1773 to 1858

Explanation: From 1773 to 1858, the British tried for the centralization of power. It was from the 1861 Councils act they shifted towards devolution of power with provinces.

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