Anatomy of Flowering Plants Important Questions and Answers

Top 50 most important Questions and Answers on Anatomy of Flowering Plants. Anatomy of Flowering Plants Important Questions and Answers with FREE PDF are the most important part of Medical Entrance Exams like NEET, AIIMS, JIPMER and other Board Exams.

1 The age of the tree can be determined by
(A) Measuring its diameter
(B) Counting the number of annual rings
(C) Counting the number of leaves
(D) Finding out the number of branches

Answer: Counting the number of annual rings
2 Which meristem helps in increasing the girth of the plant?
(A) Primary meristem
(B) Apical meristem
(C) Intercalary meristem
(D) Lateral meristem

Answer: Lateral meristem
3 Fibres associated with phloem
(A) Wood fibres
(B) Bast fibres
(C) Hard fibres
(D) Surface fibres

Answer: Bast fibres
4 In angiosperms, xylem is made up of
(A) Tracheids and fibres
(B) Tracheids and vessels
(C) Vessels and fibres
(D) All of the above

Answer: All of the above
5 Which of the following has a perforated cell wall?
(A) Vessel
(B) Fibre
(C) Tracheid
(D) Sclereid

Answer: Vessel
6 How many radial vascular bundles are found in dicot roots?
(A) Four
(B) Six
(C) Two
(D) One

Answer:Four
7 Bicollateral bundles are found in the stem of
(A) Pumpkin
(B) Sunflower
(C) Dracaena
(D) Gram

Answer: Pumpkin
8 Vascular bundles in dicot stem are
(A) Closed, conjoint, endarch
(B) Open, conjoint, endarch
(C) Closed, conjoint, exarch
(D) Open, conjoint, exarch

Answer: Open, conjoint, endarch
9 This is an incorrect statement in context of heartwood
(A) organic compounds are deposited in it
(B) it comprises dead elements with highly lignified walls
(C) it conducts water and minerals efficiently
(D) it is highly durable

Answer: it conducts water and minerals efficiently
10 The vascular cambium typically gives rise to
(A) Phelloderm
(B) secondary xylem
(C) periderm
(D) primary phloem

Answer: secondary xylem
11 A tissue that does not contain lignin
(A) Sclerenchyma
(B) Parenchyma
(C) Collenchyma
(D) Chlorenchyma

Answer:Collenchyma
12 Lateral roots originate in
(A) Cortex
(B) Endodermal cells
(C) Pericycle
(D) Cork cambium

Answer: Pericycle
13 Which gives rise to the cork tissue?
(A) Periblem
(B) Phellogen
(C) Phelloderm
(D) Periderm

Answer: Phellogen
14 Which are the external protective tissues of the plant?
(A) Cortex and epidermis
(B) Cork and cortex
(C) Pericycle and cortex
(D) Epidermis and cork

Answer: Epidermis and cork
15 Which are the external protective tissues of the plant?
(A) Cortex and epidermis
(B) Cork and cortex
(C) Pericycle and cortex
(D) Epidermis and cork

Answer: Epidermis and cork
16 Casparian strips are found in
(A) Epidermis
(B) Endodermis
(C) Exodermis
(D) Pericycle

Answer: Endodermis
17 The apical meristem of the root is found in
(A) Taproots
(B) Radicals
(C) Adventitious roots
(D) All the roots

Answer: Adventitious roots
18 Bordered pits are found in
(A) Vessel wall
(B) Sieve cells
(C) Sieve tube
(D) Companion cells

Answer:Vessel wall
19 Where in epiphytes are velamen cells located?
(A) Below the endodermis
(B) Below the epidermis
(C) Just outside the cortex
(D) Just outside the exodermis

Answer:Just outside the exodermis
20 Intercalary meristem results in
(A) Primary growth
(B) Secondary growth
(C) Apical growth
(D) None

Answer: Primary growth
21 Shoot apical meristem is found in the tip of
(A) plumule
(B) radicle
(C) root
(D) stem

Answer:stem
Description: Shoot apical meristem tissue is found at the tip of the stem. It undergoes cell division and is responsible for stem elongation.
22 Pits are formed on the cell wall due to lack of-
(A) cell plate
(B) Primary wall material
(C) Secondary wall material
(D) Middle lamella

Answer:Secondary wall material
Description:Pits are formed on the cell wall is due to lack of secondary wall material. The simple pits are the areas with only primary wall without any secondary thickening and have uniform with of the pit chamber or cavity.
23 Annual rings are found in plants belonging to
(A) Alpine regions
(B) Temperate area
(C) Tropics
(D) Near sea beaches

Answer: Temperate area
Description:Like trees and woody plants, perennial herbs have a growth zone called vascular cambium between the root bark and the root xylem. The vascular cambium ring is active during growing season and produces a new layer of xylem tissue or growth ring every year.
24 Histogen theory was produced by
(A) Hanstein
(B) Eamu
(C) Esamam
(D) Schmidit

Answer: Hanstein
Description:The histogen theory was given by Hanstein (1870), According to this, there are 3 groups of initials in the shoot apex. According to Hanstein, the three principal tissues of the root; vascular cylinder, cortex and epidermis originate from three groups of initial cells or histogens, in the apical meristem plerome, periblem and dermatogen respectively. A fourth histogen, the calyptrogen produces the root cap.
25 Mesarch xylem is common in
(A) Ferns
(B) Dicots
(C) Bryophytes
(D) Monocots

Answer: Ferns
Description:Here, protoxylem in a primary xylem strand develops first in the center of one strand and it continues to develop both centrifugally and centripetally. This type of arrangement is found in the leaves and stems of ferns and pteridophytes. So, the correct answer is “Ferns”.
26 Desert grasses often roll their leaves due to presence of
(A) Oily surface
(B) Bulliform cells
(C) Spines
(D) All of these

Answer:Bulliform cells
Description:Mechanism. During drought, the loss of water through vacuoles induces the reduced bulliform cells to allow the leaves of many grass species to close and the two edges of the grass blade fold toward each other. Once enough water is available, these cells enlarge and the leaves open again.
27 Jute is a
(A) Bast fibre from secondary xylem
(B) Bast fibres from primary xylem
(C) Bast fibres from secondary phloem
(D) Bast fibres from primary phloem

Answer: Bast fibre from secondary xylem
Description:Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin.
28 Which among the permanent cells are circular and long even elongated cells ?
(A) Prenchyma
(B) collenchyma
(C) Sclerenchyma
(D) None of these

Answer:Sclerenchyma
Description:Sclerenchyma cells are circular and long even elongated cells. Sclerenchyma cells are strong, thick cells that provide most of the support in a plant. They are known to have extremely thick cell walls and do not participate in many of the other activities of the developing plant, such as photosynthesis, because their focus is strictly on support and structure.
29 Stele is made up of
(A) Vascular bundles
(B) Pericycle
(C) Pith
(D) All of these

Answer: All of these
Description:In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium. These include vascular tissue, in some cases ground tissue (pith) and a pericycle, which, if present, defines the outermost boundary of the stele.
30 Which of the following is the correct statement ?
(A) Pith is larger in monocot root
(B) Pith is smaller in dicot root
(C) Pith is equal in size in both
(D) Both (a ) and (b)

Answer: Both (a ) and (b)
Description:Pith is a large well-developed part of the monocot root and is made up of thinly walled parenchymatous tissue. It contains high amounts of starch grains. Pith is not well developed in Monocot stem and particularly smaller.
31 Which of the following is collectively known as periderm ?
(A) Phellogen
(B) Phellem
(C) Phelloderm
(D) All of these

Answer: All of these
Description: The tissues produced by the cork cambium (also called the phellogen) are the phellum (also called the bark) to the outside and the phelloderm to the inside are collectively called the bark (also called the periderm).
32 Wood is common name of
(A) cambium
(B) phloem
(C) vascular bundles
(D) secondary xylem

Answer: secondary xylem
Description: Two types of compound transport tissue in Vascular plant is Xylem and the other is Phloem. The Xylem tissue is also known as “wood” in biology, taken from Greek word and it means wood. Xylem play vital role to transported nutrients and water from the stems to the roots of plants. It can be present in the vascular bundles of non woody parts of any plant, though the best call as Xylem tissue is “wood”. The term “wood” was coined in 1858 by Carl Nageli.
33 As a tree grows older , which increases rapidly in thickness
(A) its heartwood
(B) its sapwood
(C) its cortex
(D) its phloem

Answer: Its heartwood
Description: One or more layers of living and functional sapwood cells are periodically converted to heartwood. So, when tree grows older, heartwood increases rapidly than sapwood, cortex or phloem. Thus, option A is the correct answer.
34 In old tissue gaseseous exchange takes place through
(A) stomata
(B) arenchyma
(C) hydathodes
(D) both (a) and (c)

Answer: lenticles
Description: At the base of the lenticels are loosely arranged cells, which allow the diffused gases to pass through them. So, in older woody tissue, the gaseous exchange takes place through lenticle.
35 Cork cambium in a dicot root is derived from
(A) hypodermis
(B) epidermis
(C) pericycle
(D) cortex

Answer: pericycle
Description: Cork cambium in a dicot root is derived from pericycle. It is a tissue found in many vascular plants as a part of the epidermis. It is one of the many layers of bark, between the cork and primary phloem. The cork cambium is a lateral meristem and is responsible for secondary growth that replaces the epidermis in roots and stems.
36 In hollow hearted plant
(A) root will die first
(B) shoot will die first
(C) root and shoot will die at same time
(D) neither will die

Answer: root will die first
Description: In hollow hearted plant root woll die first. Girdling is the removal of a ring of outer tissue up to the depth of the phloem layer in a woody trunk. Phloem is responsible for downward movement of food, which is stopped hy girdling. The roots will not be able to get food and die first.
37 Quinine , imp. in treatment of malaria is extracted from
(A) bark of cinchona
(B) bark of cinnamon
(C) bark of hevea
(D) fascicular cambium

Answer: bark of cinchona
Description: Quinine, drug obtained from cinchona bark that is used chiefly in the treatment of malaria, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of various species of mosquitoes.
38 Interfascicular cambium is situated
(A) in between vascular bundles
(B) outside vascular bundles
(C) inside vascular bundles
(D) in pith

Answer: inside vascular bundles
Description: Interfascicular cambium is secondary meristem. It develops from the parenchymatous cells of medullary rays. It is located between two consecutive vascular bundles. During secondary growth its derivatives are secondary phloem, secondary xylem and conjunctive tissue.
39 The cork is an excellent material for making bottle stoppers since it is
(A) cheap
(B) easily available
(C) air tight
(D) light

Answer: air tight
Description: Cork is an impermeable, buoyant fiber, a prime subset of bark tissue harvested mainly from Quercus suber (cork oak), which is native to southwestern Europe and northwestern Africa, for commercial use. Cork is made of suberin, a hydrophobic material, and it is used in a number of products because of its impermeable (airtight), buoyant, elastic, and fire-retardant properties, the most common of which is for wine stoppers. Because of the cork’s cellular structure, it is easily packed into a bottle upon injection and expands to create a tight seal.
40 The waxy substance associated with the wall of the cork cell is
(A) Lignin
(B) Hemicellulose
(C) Cutin
(D) Suberin

Answer: Suberin
Description: A mature cork cell is non-living and has cell walls that are composed of a waxy substance that is highly impermeable to gases and water called suberin.
41 The stem of submerged hyrophytes is soft & weak due to
(A) absence of xylem
(B) absence of stomatals
(C) absence of phloem
(D) reduced mechanical tissue & xylem

Answer:reduced mechanical tissue & xylem
Explanation: The free-floating submerged hydrophytes are the plants that grow below the water surface and have no contact with the atmosphere. Hydrophytes usually have soft stems as they have large air spaces (aerenchyma) and very less mechanical tissues.

Four types of hydrophytic, or aquatic, plants exist: emergent, floating, submerged and algae.

In Hydrophytic plants, the levels of stomata differ. In fully submerged plants, stomata is mostly absent as it is non-functional because there is no need for them as they are surrounded by water, not air.

42 Which of the following is enucleated?
(A) vessels
(B) sieve cells
(C) compound cells
(D) tracheids

Answer:sieve cells
Explanation: Sieve cells are enucleated. The cell without a nucleus is called an enucleated cell. Adult human RBC do not have nuclei so that they can transport oxygen. Sieve tube cells of vascular plants and red blood cells of mammals have nuclei in their early stages but lose their nuclei at maturity.

Sieve cells are a type of sieve elements that occur in the phloem of flowering plants, gymnosperms including Gnetum and Ephedra, and pteridophytes including selaginella and Pteridium. They are elongated cells with tapered ends. Therefore, they do not form a sieve tube. They also lack a sieve plate.

43 Functional xylem in dicot stem is:
(A) spring wood
(B) autumn wood
(C) heart wood
(D) sap wood

Answer: sap wood
Explanation: Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. The basic function of xylem is to transport water, but it also transports some nutrients. Sapwood is also called as ‘alburnum’.

Functional xylem: Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. The basic function of xylem is to transport water from roots to stems and leaves, but it also transports nutrients.

Dicot stems have a well-defined epidermis with cuticle, a layer of dermis along with multicellular stem hair. The internal structure of a dicot stem mainly consists of epidermis, hypodermis, cortex endodermis, pericycle, vascular strand, and pith. Sunflower and Cucurbita are examples of dicot stems.

Sapwood is the outer layer of a branch or limb that is still living. It is usually lighter in color and is very moist. Sapwood is the living part of a tree where the sap and water flow. All wood initially grows as sapwood.

44 Wood is common name of
(A) Cambium
(B) vascular bundles
(C) phloem
(D) secondary xylem

Answer:secondary xylem
Explanation: Wood is the common name of Secondary Xylem. The common name and scientific name of parts of the tree are as follows:
Phloem: It is involved in transportation of food and it’s commonly called as bast.
Secondary Xylem: It is involved in transportation of water which is commonly called as wood.
45 Evergreen trees remains greenthroughout the year on account of
(A) absence of leaf fall
(B) cold climate
(C) leaves falling in small no. at regular intervals
(D) supply of moisture throughout the year

Answer: supply of moisture throughout the year
Explanation: An evergreen is a plant which has foliage that remains green and functional through more than one growing season. This also pertains to plants that retain their foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.

Evergreen trees are the trees which remain green throughout the year. It is because of their specialty of shedding a very few leaves in small intervals and not shedding entire leaves in a single season. So these, trees looks green forever and thus the name.

46 Sapwood is synonymous with
(A) bark
(B) periderm
(C) outer layer of secondary xylem
(D) inner layer of secondary xylem

Answer: outer layer of secondary xylem
Explanation: Sapwood is synonymous with outer layer of secondary xylem. Sapwood, also called alburnum, outer, living layers of the secondary wood of trees, which engage in transport of water and minerals to the crown of the tree. The cells therefore contain more water and lack the deposits of darkly staining chemical substances commonly found in heartwood.

Sapwood is the outer layer of a branch or limb that is still living. It is usually lighter in color and is very moist. Sapwood is the living part of a tree where the sap and water flow. All wood initially grows as sapwood.

47 The waxy substance associated with the wall of cork cell is
(A) cutin
(B) suberin
(C) lignin
(D) hemicellulose

Answer: suberin
Explanation: A mature cork cell is non-living and has cell walls that are composed of a waxy substance that is highly impermeable to gases and water called suberin.

A mature cork cell is non-living and has cell walls that are composed of a waxy substance that is highly impermeable to gases and water called suberin.

The layer of dead cells formed by the cork cambium provides the internal cells of the plants with extra insulation and protection.

48 Which of the following tissue originate from ray initials of cambium?
(A) tracheids & vessels
(B) sieve tubes & companion cells
(C) xylem & phloem fibres
(D) vascular rays

Answer:vascular rays
Explanation: The ray initials of the vascular cambium divide tangentially and produce parenchymatous cells on both sides, which differentiate as parenchymatous vascular rays. These rays traverse from pith to cortex through secondary xylem and phloem.

A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in plants, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth. It is found in the area between xylem and phloem. It forms parallel rows of cells, which result in secondary tissues.

49 Abnormal secondary growth is found in
(A) dracaena & yucca
(B) triticum
(C) helianthus
(D) cucurbita

Answer: Composite fruit
Explanation: Abnormal secondary growth is found in Composite fruit. Abnormal secondary growth does not follow the pattern of a single vascular cambium producing xylem to the inside and phloem to the outside as in ancestral lignophytes. Some dicots have anomalous secondary growth, e.g. in Bougainvillea a series of cambia arise outside the oldest phloem.

Anomalous secondary growth is the term under which have been grouped cambial conformations, cambial products, and cambial numbers which differ from the most common “normal” condition, namely, a single cylindrical cambium that produces phloem externally and xylem internally.

50 Diffuse porous woods are characteristic of plant growing in
(A) alpine region
(B) cold winter region
(C) temperate climate
(D) tropics

Answer: temperate climate
Explanation: Diffuse porous woods are characteristic of plant growing in temperate climate. Diffuse porous woods is known as porous. In porous wood, if vessels have essentially equal diameters and are uniformly distributed throughout the ring, the wood is known as diffuse porous. It is characterstic of plants growing in tropics.

In diffuse-porous woods the pores are evenly sized so that the water conducting capability is scattered throughout the growth ring instead of being collected in a band or row. Examples of this kind of wood are alder, basswood, birch, buckeye, maple, willow, and the Populus species such as aspen, cottonwood and poplar.

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