Polity Current Affairs January 2021 pdf

polity current affairs january 2021 pdf are most important part of upsc prelims and mains, ssc, bank, rrb, ibps and other various exams.

Polity Current Affairs January 2021 pdf Download

Top 30 Indian polity current affairs January 2021 pdf are most important part of UPSC prelims and mains, SSC, Bank, RRB, IBPS and other various exams. These polity current affairs are composed from Indian express, The Hindu, PIB, Yojana and various other magazine.

No-confidence motion

Chief Minister of Puducherry resigned after his government lost the no-confidence motion in the state assembly.

The government lost its numbers owing to a spate of resignations by MLAs of ruling party, necessitating a motion.

No confidence motion is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position.

As a parliamentary motion, it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in the appointed government. 

In some countries, if a no confidence motion is passed against an individual minister they have to resign along with the entire council of ministers.

A no-confidence motion may be more directed against the entire council of ministers led by the chief minister.

A no confidence motions may not require reasons to be specified. It may be initiated if the opposition feels that government does not have the numbers.

Meghalaya assembly speaker visits Arunachal assembly

Meghalaya State Assembly Speaker Metbah Lygdoh visited Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly Secretariat in Itanagar to get first-hand information about the National e-Vidhan project implemented in the Assembly.

e-Vidhan is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) included in Digital India Programme and Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (MoPA) is the ‘Nodal Ministry’ for its implementation in all the States/ UTs with Legislatures.

Polity Current Affairs January 2021 Download pdf

Funding of NeVA is on the pattern of Central Sponsored Scheme i.e. 60:40; and 90:10 for North East & hilly States and 100% for UTs.

The funding for e-Vidhan is provided by the MoPA and technical support by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).

Restoring suspended accounts of Twitter

The government may take the unprecedented step of filing a first information report (FIR) against Twitter if it doesn’t comply with directions to block accounts and tweets that threaten law and order, according to people with knowledge of the matter.

In India, the Information Technology Act, 2000, as amended from time to time, governs all activities related to the use of computer resources.

It covers all ‘intermediaries’ who play a role in the use of computer resources and electronic records.

The term ‘intermediaries’ includes providers of telecom service, network service, Internet service and web hosting, besides search engines, online payment and auction sites, online marketplaces and cyber cafes.

It includes any person who, on behalf of another, “receives, stores or transmits” any electronic record. Social media platforms would fall under this definition.

Sub-categorisation of OBCs

Centre has extended the tenure of The Commission to Examine Sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) headed by Justice G Rohini, former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court.

OBCs are granted 27% reservation in jobs and education under the central government.

In September last year, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court reopened the legal debate on sub-categorisation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for reservations.

The debate arises out of the perception that only a few affluent communities among the over 2,600 included in the Central List of OBCs have secured a major part of this 27% reservation.

The argument for sub-categorisation — or creating categories within OBCs for reservation — is that it would ensure “equitable distribution” of representation among all OBC communities.

To examine this, the Rohini Commission was constituted on October 2, 2017.

Separation of powers

Certain judicial decisions by the courts have been considered a violation of separation of powers doctrine.

The separation of powers is the division of a state’s government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches.

Download Polity Current Affairs January 2021 pdf

The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is the trias politica model.

It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in parliamentary and semi-presidential systems, where the executive and legislative branches overlap.

The intention behind a system of separated powers is to prevent the concentration of power by providing for checks and balances.

Government securities

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will give small investors direct access to its government securities trading platform.

Retail investors can directly open their gilt accounts with RBI, and trade in government securities. The RBI Governor described this as a “major structural reform.”

Government Securities (or g-secs) are debt instruments issued by the government to borrow money.

The two key categories are:

  • Treasury bills – short-term instruments which mature in 91 days, 182 days, or 364 days, and
  • Dated securities – long-term instruments, which mature anywhere between 5 years and 40 years.

Guidelines for floating structures

Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways has issued the guidelines for floating structures with a vision to set up world-class floating infrastructure all along the coastline in the upcoming projects as per the provisions contained in the guidelines.

The guidelines sets out technical aspects for implementation of Floating Jetties or Platforms for Marinas, Minor Harbors, Fishing Harbours or Fish landing centers, Waterdomes and such other similar facilities in coastal areas, estuaries, waterways, rivers and reservoirs.

These guidelines may also be suitably utilized for floating pontoons or platforms in various waterborne systems and floating wave attenuators or breakwaters for Minor Harbors or Fish Landing facilities.

Gujarat’s two-child policy

Three candidates from the Municipal Corporations of Vadodara and Rajkot were disqualified under the two-child policy in place in the state for candidates. The nominations were challenged because each candidate had three children.

In 2005, the Gujarat government amended the Gujarat Local Authorities Act to “prevent a person having more than two children to be a member of panchayat, or the councillor of a municipality or municipal corporation”.

The amendment also added the clause to the other Acts governing elections to local administrative bodies such as the Gujarat Provincial Municipal Corporations Act, 1949, and the Gujarat Panchayats Act.

The rationale behind the two-child policy was said to be the need to “order and stabilise” the growing population of the count.

Major Port Authorities Bill, 2020

Parliament passed the Major Port Authorities Bill, 2020. The Bill is more compact in comparison to the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963 as the number of sections has been reduced to 76 from 134 by eliminating overlapping and obsolete Sections.

The new Bill has proposed a simplified composition of the Board of Port Authority which will comprise of 11 to 13 Members from the present 17 to 19 Members representing various interests.

The role of Tariff Authority for Major Ports (TAMP) has been redefined. Port Authority has now been given powers to fix tariff which will act as a reference tariff for purposes of bidding for PPP projects. PPP operators will be free to fix tariff- based on market conditions.

The Board of Port Authority has been delegated the power to fix the scale of rates for other port services and assets including land.

An Adjudicatory Board has been proposed to be created to carry out the residual function of the erstwhile TAMP for Major Ports, to look into disputes between ports and PPP concessionaires

The Boards of Port Authority have been delegated full powers to enter into contracts, planning and development, fixing of tariff except in national interest, security and emergency arising out of inaction and default. In the present MPT Act, 1963 prior approval of the Central Government was required in 22 instances.

The Board of each Major Port shall be entitled to create specific master plan in respect of any development or infrastructure.

Provisions of CSR & development of infrastructure by Port Authority have been introduced.

Provision has been made for safeguarding the pay & allowances and service conditions including pensionary benefits of the employees of major ports.

Arbitration and Conciliation Bill 2021

Lok Sabha gave its nod to Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill 2021. The Bill contains provisions to deal with domestic and international arbitration. It defines law for conducting conciliation proceedings. The Bill replaces an Ordinance with the same provisions promulgated on 4th November last year.

The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2021 was introduced in Lok Sabha on February 4, 2021.

It seeks to amend the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. The Act contains provisions to deal with domestic and international arbitration and defines the law for conducting conciliation proceedings.

The Bill replaces an Ordinance with same provisions promulgated on November 4, 2020.

Automatic stay on awards: The Bill specifies that a stay on the arbitral award can be provided (even during the pendency of the setting aside of the application) if the court is satisfied that:

  • The relevant arbitration agreement or contract, or
  • The making of the award, was induced, or effected by fraud or corruption.
  • This change will be effective from October 23, 2015.

The Bill removes the Schedule for arbitrators and states that the qualifications, experience, and norms for accreditation of arbitrations will be specified under the regulations.

Devendra Kula Vellalar community

The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has said that the reports appearing in media about delisting of Devendra Kula Vellalar community from SC soon are completely misinformed.

The Ministry has clarified that the news is misleading and does not reflect the actual position.

It has stated that the Cabinet has approved for categorising (7) SC communities into Devendra Kula Vellalar which would also be a part of the Scheduled Castes list of Tamil Nadu.

Therefore, the statement that they will be delisted from SCs and would be made OBCs is completely incorrect and it may be clarified that the statement does not reflect the correct position.

The Ministry has further clarified that a Bill for categorising (7) SC communities into Devendra Kula Vellalar under SC list to Tamil Nadu is already introduced in the Lok Sabha.

Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry

Kiran Bedi was removed as Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry late. Telangana Governor Tamilsai Soundararajan has been given additional charge of the Union Territory until regular arrangements are made.

Article 153 of the Indian constitution states that here shall be Governor for each State.

Nothing in this article shall prevent the appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States.

Juvenile Justice Act, 2015

The Union Cabinet of India has approved the proposal of the Ministry of Women and Child Development to amend the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 to introduce measures for strengthening Child Protection set-up to ensure best interest of children.

The amendments include authorizing District Magistrate including Additional District Magistrate to issue adoption orders under Section 61 of the JJ Act, in order to ensure speedy disposal of cases and enhance

The District Magistrates have been further empowered under the Act, to ensure its smooth implementation, as well as garner synergized efforts in favour of children in distress conditions.

Defining eligibility parameters for appointment of CWC members, and categorizing previously undefined offences as ‘serious offence’ are some of the other aspects of the proposal.

Several difficulties faced in implementation of various provisions of the Act have also been addressed.

Transit anticipatory bail

Shantanu Muluk who has been allegedly involved in creating a ‘toolkit’ related to farmers’ protests, was granted transit anticipatory bail by the Bombay High Court on February 16, 2021.

According to Article 22 of the Constitution of India, every person who is “arrested and detained in custody” has to be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours of the arrest — the period excludes the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the court.

No person can be kept in custody beyond the period of 24 hours without an order of a magistrate. Section 56 of the CrPC states that the person arrested has to be taken before the magistrate without unnecessary delay.

When does a person apply for anticipatory transit bail? When a person is apprehending arrest by the police of a state other than where they are at present, they approach the nearest competent court for a transit anticipatory or pre-arrest bail.

Delimitation process of Jammu and Kashmir

Delimitation Commission comprising of Chairperson held a meeting in New Delhi with the Associate Members from Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, for seeking their suggestion/views on the process of delimitation in respect of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

An overview on the process of delimitation based on the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019 and Delimitation Act, 2002 was presented before the Members detailing various Sections of these Acts related to the delimitation exercise.

Delimitation is the act of redrawing boundaries of Lok Sabha and state Assembly seats to represent changes in population so that the population of all seats, so far as practicable, is the same.

The main objective of delimitation is to provide equal representation to equal segments of a population; fair division of geographical areas so that one political party doesn’t have an advantage over others in an election.

Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.

Delimitation is carried out by an independent Delimitation Commission. Delimitation Commissions have been set up four times — 1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002 under the Acts of 1952, 1962, 1972 and 2002. There was no delimitation after the 1981 and 1991 Censuses.

Shabnam Ali asks President for Mercy

A prison in Uttar Pradesh is preparing for what could be the first-ever hanging of a woman convict in independent India. Shabnam Ali was sentenced to death for killing seven members of her family, including a baby, in 2008.

The same day, Shabman filed a second mercy petition with the Governor of Uttar Pradesh and the President of India, both of whom have earlier rejected her plea.

If executed, Shabnam will be the first woman in independent India to be hanged for a crime.

Legal options still available with Shabnam

These include the right to challenge the rejection of her mercy petition before the Allahabad High Court and the Supreme Court on various grounds and also the right to file a curative petition in the Supreme Court against the decision on the review petition.”

The curative petition can challenge the Supreme Court decision of January 2020, which upheld her death sentence.

Also, under the law, if multiple people have been sentenced to death in the same case, they have to be executed together. So, Shabnam and Saleem can be hanged only after both of them exhaust all their legal recourses.

Uber drivers are workers not self-employed

Uber drivers must be treated as workers rather than self-employed, the UK’s Supreme Court has ruled.

With this ruling, Uber and other service providing platforms could also potentially face legal and regulatory challenges in India, as big tech companies from across the globe are under government scrutiny for the differential terms of service and engagement in geographies such as the EU and in locations such as India.

The increased focus on big tech aside, the central government has already put in place some legal protection for gig economy workers.

The budget for the 2021-22 has already mandated that the law on minimum wages would now apply to workers of all categories including those associated with platforms such as Uber.

Such workers would now be covered by the Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), which mandates employers depositing a certain amount of money with the state insurer, the rest of which is paid by the government.

November last year, the central government had come out with specific norms for ride hailing apps such as Uber and Ola.

Under the new rules, ride hailing apps could charge a maximum of 20 per cent commission per ride from driver partners, while also capping the total number of working hours per day at 12.

The new regulations also provided for the maximum fare that these platforms could charge customers even during high demand peak hours, and that they would have to provide drivers with insurance.

Royal scion Pradyot Kishore

Tripura royal scion Pradyot Kishore Manikya has recently announced his new political demand of ‘Greater Tipraland’, which he claims would serve the interest of tribals, non-tribals, Tripuri tribals staying outside Tripura, even those outside India in Bandarban, Chittagong, Khagrachari and other border adjacent areas in Bangladesh.

‘Greater Tipraland’ is essentially an extension of the ruling tribal partner Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura – IPFT’s demand of Tipraland, which sought a separate state for tribals of Tripura.

The new demand seeks to include every tribal person living in indigenous area or village outside the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) under the proposed model.

However, the idea doesn’t restrict to simply the Tripura tribal council areas, but seeks to include ‘Tiprasa’ of Tripuris spread across different states of India like Assam, Mizoram etc. as well, even those living in Bandarban, Chittagong, Khagrachari and other bordering areas of neighbouring Bangladesh.

Khela hobe slogan

With the political mercury rising in West Bengal ahead of the Assembly polls, the bitter rivalry among parties is being played out not just through war of words, but also colourful jingles and slogans.

Among them, one that has particularly captured the imagination across the political spectrum is the slogan ‘khela hobe’ (Game on).

But it was popularised in West Bengal by Trinamool Congress president of Birbhum district, Anubrata Mondal, who at a local political event said, “Khela hobe. Bhoyonkor khela hobe. Ei mati te khela hobe.” (The game is on. It will be a dangerous game. But the game is on and this will be the playground.)

The slogan, through which leaders are challenging their opponents now, likens the political battlefield to a playground. It means this electoral battle has not been decided yet — there is a lot to fight for in these Assembly polls and only time will tell who has the last laugh.

Debate on court etiquette

The debate around court etiquette in India was triggered again on February 23, 2021 after a Supreme Court Bench headed by Chief Justice of India (CJI) S A Bobde objected to a petitioner addressing judges as “Your Honour”.

“When you call us Your Honour, you either have the Supreme Court of United States or the Magistrate in mind. We are neither,” the CJI told the petitioner, a law student.

For years, there have been efforts to purge from courtroom protocol salutations such as “My Lord” and “Your Lordship” — a practice inherited from British rule.

The Advocates Act of 1961, under section 49(1)(c), empowers the Bar Council of India to make rules on professional and etiquette standards to be observed by advocates.

To address this issue, a Resolution by the Bar Council of India in 2006 added Chapter IIIA to Part VI of the BCI Rules.

Interestingly, while the 2006 notification discouraged the use of “My Lord” and “Your Lordship”, it prescribed “Your Honour” or “Hon’ble Court” as an acceptable way for addressing the Supreme Court & High Courts, and “Sir” in Subordinate Courts and Tribunals.

Conspiracy charge against Disha Ravi

In granting bail to 22-year-old climate change activist Disha Ravi, the trial court in Delhi rejected the Delhi Police charge that she was part of a “larger conspiracy” to incite violence in the national capital on January 26.

Section 120A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) defines criminal conspiracy; Section 120B prescribes the punishment for it.

An “agreement” between two or more persons to commit a criminal offence constitutes the offence of criminal conspiracy.

Only an agreement is necessary and sufficient to establish the charge of conspiracy, even if the actual criminal offence itself has not been committed. Criminal conspiracy is a substantive offence in itself.

The law in its current form was added in 1913, nearly four decades after the IPC was first enacted. The provision was designed by the British to deal with the rising nationalist sentiment in India.

Utilise excess Cauvery water ‘illegal’

Terming the Tamil Nadu government’s move to utilise the excess water in the Cauvery basin as ‘illegal,’ Home, Law and Parliamentary Affairs Minister Basavaraj Bommai said that Karnataka will challenge the new link scheme of Tamil Nadu in the Supreme Court.

The decision follows Tamil Nadu’s move to lay foundation to the Cauvery-Vellaru-Vaigai-Gundar link scheme. The link scheme proposes to utilise the surplus water in the Cauvery basin and transfer it to its Southern region.

According to Karnataka, It is not right on the part of Tamil Nadu to utilise surplus water before it is allocated. Under the provisions of The Inter State Water Disputes Act, it is illegal and cannot happen without proper allocation.

Indian Polity Current Affairs January 2021 pdf

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