Cyclone Jawad formed in the Bay of Bengal

Cyclone Jawad has formed in the Bay of Bengal and is expected to reach Paradip, on the Odisha coast, by Sunday with winds expected to touch 90 kmph as well as heavy rains in Odisha, West Bengal, and north Andhra Pradesh over the weekend.

The cyclone will briefly gain in strength and become a ‘severe’ cyclonic storm, but is unlikely to make a conventional landfall. It is expected to skirt the coast near Paradip and plot a trajectory towards West Bengal.

Jawad currently lies about 650 km away from Paradip and is expected to reach the north Andhra Pradesh coast by Saturday noon.

This cyclone is expected to be much less intense than recent ones such as Titli, and nowhere near extreme ones such as Failin, Fani, Hudhud.

What is Cyclone?

Cyclone is a word that is used to describe low-pressure areas with winds spiralling inwards around an area of low air pressure, or warm core. Cyclones rotate anti-clockwise in Northern Hemisphere and rotates clockwise in Southern Hemisphere. The process of cyclone formation and intensification is called Cycloneogenesis.

Different Types of Cyclone

There are various types of cyclones depending on the type of prevailing low-pressure system.

  1. Tropical cyclone
  2. Extratropical cyclone
  3. Tornadoes

Cyclones are not only present on Earth but also spotted on other planets like Mars, Jupiter, and Neptune. The Great Red Spot is the hurricane on Jupiter which is going on from 340 years. Great Black Spot was spotted in the Southern Hemisphere of Neptune.

How is a Cyclone formed?

When it comes to the formation or strengthening of a cyclone, Cyclogenesis plays a crucial role. It is an umbrella term to identify several different processes that result in a cyclone. Tropical cyclones are formed over warm ocean water near the equator. Warm moist air near the surface of the ocean rises upwards.

This creates a low-pressure area near the surface. This results in the movement of cooler air from surrounding areas into the low-pressure area. Now even this cool air becomes warm and moist and rises up. The above cycle keeps continuing.

The warm moist air which rises up, cools the water in the air, resulting in the formation of clouds. This whole system of clouds and winds spins and grows. This entire cycle continues resulting in a cyclone. When the winds reach a speed of 63 mph, it is called a tropical storm, when the winds reach a speed of 119 kmph it is called a tropical cyclone or hurricane.

Nomenclature of Cyclones

Lists and names of Cyclones are maintained and updated by an international committee of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO).

The original lists had only names of women. In 1979 men’s names were also included. Names of men and women are used alternatively.

Six lists are used in rotation. Hence the list used in 2020 will be used again in 2026. If the storms have wreaked havoc on a country, then the names will not be repeated due to reasons of sensitivity.

Examples are Katrina in the USA (2005), Sandy in the USA (2012), Haiyan in the Philippines (2013), Irma, and Maria in the Carribean (2017).