Class 10 History Social Science Chapter 1: Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Are you studying CBSE Class 10th History? What is in Class 10 History Chapter 1? These NCERT solutions to Class 10 history chapter 1 on Rise of Nationalism in Europe will help students studying the subject at high school level. The solutions given here involves moderate level of difficulty and thus the questions can be used as an effective learning activity for the students preparing for board exams or any other competitive exams like SSC/IAS/PCS/Clerk.

Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes

Nation (State):

A large number of people of mainly common descent, language, history, inhabiting a territory bounded by defined limits and forming a society under one government is called a nation.

Frederic Sorrieu and his visualization:

In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four prints, visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’, as he called them.

The first print shows the people of Europe and America marching in a long train, and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by it. A female figure carries a torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man, in the other hand.

  1. On the earth lies the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
  2. In Sorrieu’s Utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costumes.
  3. Leading the procession are USA and Switzerland, followed by France and Germany. Following Germany are Austria, Kingdom of the two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.
  4. From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze at the scene. The artist symbolizes fraternity among the nations of the world.

The French Revolution and the idea of Nation:

  1. Growth of nationalism in France.
  2. Introduction of various measures and practices created sense of collective identity among the people of France.
  3. Change of monarchy and establishment of republic, creation of new assembly.
  4. Rise of Napoleon and his reforms. Revolutionaries help other people of Europe to become nation.

The making of Nationalism in Europe:

  1. Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdom, duchies and cantones these divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
  2. Uses of different languages.
  3. Rise of middle class.
  4. Industrialization in England, emergence of a working class and liberalism.
  5. New conservation after 1815 and preservation of traditional institution.
  6. After the defeat of Napoleon, the European government follows the spirit of conservatism. Conservative regimes were autocratic Revolutionaries at that time fought for liberty and freedom.
  7. Example, Mazzini’s young Italy and Young Europe.

Unification of Italy:

  1. Giuseppe Mazzini had played an important role in the unification of Italy. He formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles, to spread his goals. He believed Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and had to be forged into a single unified republic. During 1830’s, Mazzini sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. As uprisings in 1831 and 1848 had failed, the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler Emmanuel II to unify Italy.
  2. Under Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in destroying the Austrian forces in 1859. Even Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the kingdom of the two Sicilies and with the help of the local peasants, drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as King of United Italy.

Unification of Germany:

  1. In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states. Some of these states ceased to exist during the Napoleonic wars. At the end of the war, there were still 39 independent states in Germany. Prussia was most powerful, dominated by big landlords known as Junkers.
  2. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who had tried to unite the different regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.
  3. In May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an all-German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor
  4. The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the ‘Junkers’.
  5. Then on, Prussia under its Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck led the movement for unification of Germany. Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.
  6. Consequently, on 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising of princes of German States, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailles and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.

Visualizing the Nation:

  1. Marianne and Germania were both female allegories used by artists in the 19th century to represent the nation.
  2. In France she was named Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and republic—the red cap, the tri-colour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares as a national symbol of unity. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
  3. Instead of just having the idea of father land, they wanted to implant a suitable image in the minds of the people. They invariably chose the mother figure symbolizing nations—Britannia, Germania and Marianne reminding us of our concept of Matribhumi.
  4. Germania became the allegory of the German nation. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as German oak stands for heroism. It was hung from the ceiling of St. Paul’s Church, where Frankfurt Parliament was convened, to symbolize the liberal revolution.

Napoleonic Code:

  1. The first major change was doing away with all privileges based on birth, establishing equality before law and securing the right to property.
  2. Administrative divisions were simplified.
  3. Feudal system was abolished and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues (abuse of manorial lords).
  4. In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
  5. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  6. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
  7. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods in particular began to realize that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

Nationalism and Imperialism:

Last quarter of the 19th century nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends, Intolerance Balkan became the sense of big power rivalry Nationalism, aligned with imperialism cause of World War I. Idea of a Nationalism was now same everywhere . But concept of National State was accepted universally.

Class 10 History Chapter 1 MCQ

1. Ernst Renan believed that the existence of nations is a necessity because

(a) it ensures protection to all inhabitants.

(b) it ensures liberty to all inhabitant citizens.

(c) it ensures Parliamentary form of govern-ment to its inhabitants.

(d) it ensures jobs and good health to all its inhabitants.

Answer: b

2. Which of the following countries did not attend the Congress of Vienna?

(a) Britain

(b) Russia

(c) Prussia

(d) Switzerland

Answer: d

3. The first great revolution which gave the clear idea of nationalism with its core words: ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ was:

(a) The Russian Revolution

(b) The French Revolution

(c) The American Revolution

(d) India’s First War of Independence

Answer: b

4. Which of the following statements about the ‘French Revolution’ are correct?

(i) After the end of the French Revolution it was proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

(ii) France will have a constitutional monarchy and the new republic will be headed by a member of the royal family.

(iii) A centralised administrative system will be put in place to formulate uniform laws for all citizens.

(iv) Imposition of internal custom duties and dues will continue to exist in France.

(a) (ii) and (iii)

(b) (ii) and (iv)

(c) (i) and (iii)

(d) (iii) and (iv)

Answer: c

5. The French revolutionaries declared that the mission and destiny of the French nation was

(a) to conquer the people of Europe.

(b) to liberate the people of Europe from despotism.

(c) to strengthen absolute monarchies in all the countries of Europe.

(d) to propagate the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity in every part of the world.

Answer: b

6. The Civil Code of 1804 in France is usually known as:

(a) The French Revolutionary Code

(b) Napoleonic Code

(c) European Imperial Code

(d) The French Civil Code

Answer: b

7. The Napoleonic Code was exported to which of the following regions?

(a) England

(b) Spain

(c) Regions under French control

(d) Poland

Answer: c

8. The liberal nationalism stands for:

(a) freedom for the individual and equality before law.

(b) preservation of autocracy and clerical privileges.

(c) freedom for only male members of society and equality before law.

(d) freedom only for senior citizens.

Answer: a

9. Who among the following formed the secret society called ‘Young Italy’? [Delhi 2012]

(a) Otto von Bismarck

(b) Giuseppe Mazzini

(c) Mettemich

(d) Johann Gottfried Herder

Answer: b

10. The term ‘Universal Suffrage’ means:

(a) the right to vote and get elected, granted only to men.

(b) the right to vote for all adults.

(c) the right to vote and get elected, granted exclusively to property owning men.

(d) the right to vote and get elected, granted only to educated men and women.

Answer: b

11. Which of the following is not a feature or belief of ‘Conservatism’?

(a) Conservatives believe in established, traditional institutions of state and policy.

(b) Conservatives stressed the importance of tradition and preferred gradual develop¬ment to quick change.

(c) Conservatives proposed to return to the society of pre-revolutionary days and were against the ideas of modernisation to strengthen monarchy.

(d) Conservatives believed in the monarchy, church, and other social hierarchies.


Answer: c

12. The Treaty of recognized Greece as an independent nation:

(a) Vienna 1815

(b) Constantinople 1832

(c) Warsaw 1814

(d) Leipzig 1813

Answer: b

13. Who said ‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold’?

(a) Garibaldi

(b) Bismarck

(c) Mazzini

(d) Duke Metternich

Answer: d

14. What happened to Poland at the end of 18th century. Which of the following answers is correct?

(a) Poland achieved independence at the end of the 18th century.

(b) Poland came totally under the control of Russia and became part of Russia.

(c) Poland became the part of East Germany.

(d) Poland was partitioned at the end of the 18th century by three Great Powers: Russia, Prussia and Austria.

Answer: d

15. Who played the leading role in the unification of Germany?

(a) German Emperor (formerly King of Prussia) — Kaiser William I.

(b) Otto Von Bismarck (Prussian Chief Minister).

(c) Johann Gottfried Herder — German philosopher.

(d) Austrian Chancellor — Duke Metternich.

Answer: b

16. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, Germany and France, ended in

(a) Danish victory

(b) Prussian victory

(c) French victory

(d) German victory

Answer: b

17. Who was proclaimed the emperor of Germany in 1871?

(a) Otto Von Bismarck

(b) Victor Emmanuel II

(c) Count Cavour

(d) Kaiser William I of Prussia

Answer: d

18. Who became the King of United Italy in 1861?

(a) Giuseppe Garibaldi

(b) Victor Emmanuel II

(c) Count Cavour

(d) Giuseppe Mazzini

Answer: b

19. What helped in the formation of a nation-state in Britain?

(a) The formation of a nation-state in Britain was the result of a sudden upheaval.

(b) In 1688, the monarchy in Britain had seized the power from English Parliament.

(c) The parliament through a bloodless revolution seized power from the monarchy which gradually led to the emergence of a nation-state.

(d) The British nation was formed as a result of a war with Scotland and Wales.

Answer: c

20. Who was responsible for the unification of Germany?

(a) Count Cavour

(b) Bismarck

(c) Garibaldi

(d) Giuseppe Mazzini

Answer: b

21. The allegory of the German nation who wears a crown of oak leaves was a:

(a) Marianne

(b) Union Jack

(c) Britannia

(d) Germania

Answer: d

22. A large part of Balkan region was under the control of:

(a) Russian empire

(b) Ottoman empire

(c) German empire

(d) Habsburg rulers

Answer: b

23. Choose the correct nationality of the artist Frederic Sorrieu who visualised in his painting a society made up of Democratic and Social Republic.

(a) German

(b) Swiss

(c) French

(d) American

Answer: b

24. ‘Nationalism’, which emerged as a force in the late 19th century, means

(a) strong devotion for one’s own country and its history and culture.

(b) strong devotion for one’s own country without appreciation for other nations.

(c) strong love for one’s own country and hatred for others.

(d) equally strong devotion for all the countries of the world.

Answer: a

25. Match the term with the statements given below:

A ‘Utopian Society’ is

(i) a society under a benevolent monarchy

(ii) a society that is unlikely to ever exist

(iii) a society under the control of a chosen few wise men

(iv) a society under Parliamentary Democracy

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (ii) and (iii)

(c) (ii) only

(d) (iii) only

Answer: b

Class 10 History Chapter 1 One Mark Questions

1. What was this main objective of the treaty of Vienna of 1815?

Answer: To undo the changes brought about in Europe during Napoleonic war

2. Which of the following treaty recognized Greece as an independent nation?

Answer: Treaty of Constantinople

3. At which of the following places was the Frankfurt assembly convened?

Answer: At the church of St panli

4. “The aim of the Zollverein is to bind the Germans economically in to a nation”. Who wrote these words?

Answer: Friedrich List, Professor of Economics at the University of Tubingen in Germany.

5. Name the kings who had been restored to power after Vienna congress by the conservatives?

Answer: Bourbon Kings

6. Name the secret societies founded by Giuseppe Mazzine?

Answer: Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne

7. Potatoes were not known to people in Asia and Europe till the discovery of which great Island?

Answer: Ireland

8. Who was Frederic sorrieu?

Answer: A Painter

9. Which of the following is true with reference to Romanticism?

Answer: Cultural movement

10. What was the basic philosophy of the conservatives?

Answer: They stressed the importance of tradition and established institutions and customs

11. Why the 1830s was the year of great economic hardship in Europe?

Answer: Increase in population, unemployment migration, price rise, stiff competition in the market, Bad condition of peasants.

12. Which of the following state lead the unification of Germany?

Answer: Prussia

13. Who hosted the congress of Vienna in 1815?

Answer: Duke Metternich

14. Name the Irish catholic who revolted against the British domination.

Answer: Wolf Tone

15. Who was proclaimed the first king of Italy?

Answer: Victor Emmanuel II

16. Who was Count Cavour?

Answer: The chief Minister of Italy

17. Who was the guiding force for the unification of England in 1707?

Answer: The English Parliament

18. When was the Frankfurt Parliament held?

Answer: In 1848

19. Name the area which was ruled by Habsburg Empire?

Answer: Austria-Hungary

20. Who described the Italian revolutionary nationalist Mazzini as the most dangerous enemy of our social order?

Answer: Duke Metternich

Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions With Answers

1. What is Plebiscite?

Answer: Plebiscite is a direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.

2. What political and constitutional changes did take place in the wake of the French Revolution in 1789?

Answer: The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.

3. State any one step that could create a sense of collective identity among the French people.

Answer: The ideas of the fatherland and the citizen emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

4. Which clubs were set up after the French Revolution and by whom ?

Answer: As the news of events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs.

5. How the Napoleon code was implemented in the regions under French control ?

Answer: In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

6. Why did the people in the conquered territories become hostile to Napoleon’s rule ?

Answer: The people became hostile due to increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer ihe rest of Europe. All these seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

7. In Austria-Hungary in the mid-eighteenth century, there were different groups, languages etc. In such a situation what was the binding tie between them?

Answer: The only tie binding the diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.

8. What was the meaning of liberalism in early 19th century in Europe?

Answer: The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber meaning free. Thus for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government consent.

9. What do you mean by suffrage?

Answer: Suffrage means right to vote.

10. Who had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states of Germany?

Answer: Napoleon.

11. In 1834, which customs union was formed? Who joined it?

Answer: In 1834 a customs union – zollvere in was formed. The union was joined by most of the German state.

12. Which French artist prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world?

Answer: Frederic Sorrieu.

13. What do you understand by ‘absolutist’?

Answer: Absolutist, literally a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.

14. What is a Utopian?

Answer: Utopian is a vision of society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.

15. What are advantages of a nation? State one advantage.

Answer: The existence of nations is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.

Class 10 History Chapter 1 MCQ Online Test

In this test, you will be tested with NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 1. This test is designed by Team Livemcqs.

When did the French Revolution start?


What was the political situation in France at the time?


What emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution?


How many colours did the new French flag have?


By whom was the Estates General elected?


What was the new name of the Estates General?


What actions were taken in the name of the nation?


What type of an administrative system was set up?


Regional dialects were discouraged and………….., became the common language of the nation.


What mission did the revolutionaries declare as the destiny to the French people?


What happened when the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe?


What was the purpose of the Jacobin clubs?


What was the result of the activities and campaigns held at the Jacobin clubs?


Which countries did the French armies move into?


What idea did the French armies carry abroad through the revolutionary wars?


FAQs on Class 10 History Chapter 1

What is the first chapter of history class 10?

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe is the 1st Chapter of Class 10 History textbook in India.

Who was Giuseppe Mazzini Mcq?

Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. Born in Genoa in 1807, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. He founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne.

What was the purpose of Jacobin Club Mcq?

The purpose of Jacobin Club was to protect the gains of the Revolution against a possible aristocratic reaction. The club soon admitted non deputies—usually prosperous bourgeois and men of letters—and acquired affiliates throughout France.

Who played the leading role in the unification of Germany Mcq?

Otto Von Bismarck played the leading role in the unification of Germany