What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to the French Revolution in Europe?
Answer: Following the French Revolution, political and constitutional reforms resulted in the transfer of authority from the king to a body of French citizens. The revolution declared that the people would form the nation and determine its dynasty.
The French Revolution, also known as the Revolution of 1789, was a revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799, climaxing in 1789—hence the term “Revolution of 1789,” which denotes the end of the ancien régime in France and also serves to distinguish it from the later French revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
Origins of the Revolution
The French Revolution had both general and specific factors that explain why it was by far the most violent and globally significant of all the revolutions in the Western world at the end of the 18th century. The social structure of the West was the first of the general causes. The feudal system had been gradually weakened and had already vanished in areas of Europe.
The bourgeoisie, an increasingly numerous and opulent group of wealthy commoners—merchants, manufacturers, and professionals—aspired to political power in countries where it did not already exist.
The peasants, many of whom owned land, had improved their level of living and education and desired to abolish the final traces of feudalism in order to gain full landowner rights and the freedom to expand their holdings. Furthermore, since around 1730, improving living standards have significantly reduced adult mortality rates.
This, combined with other circumstances, resulted in a population boom in Europe that had not been seen in centuries: between 1715 and 1800, the population of Europe doubled. The problem was particularly great in France, which had 26 million residents in 1789 and was Europe’s most populous country.