Ex-Situ Control Measures to control stubble burning

Stubble burning is a significant problem in agriculture, particularly in India. Every year, farmers burn millions of tonnes of paddy straw, causing air pollution and environmental damage.

There are a number of ex-situ control measures that can be used to control stubble burning. These include using paddy straw in biomass power generation, bio-ethanol production, co-firing in thermal plants, using it as cattle fodder, and using it in furnishing material and packaging.

The use of paddy straw in biomass power generation is a particularly promising solution. Biomass power plants can use paddy straw as a fuel, and this can help to reduce the amount of straw that is burned.

Bio-ethanol production is another potential solution. Paddy straw can be used to produce bio-ethanol, which can be used as fuel in vehicles. This can help to reduce the demand for petrol and diesel, and also reduce the amount of straw that is burned.

Co-firing in thermal plants is another option. Thermal power plants can use paddy straw as fuel, alongside coal. This can help to reduce the emissions from power plants, and also reduce the amount of straw that is burned.

Using paddy straw as cattle fodder is another way to control stubble burning. Cattle can eat paddy straw, and this can help to reduce the amount of straw that is burned.

Finally, using paddy straw in furnishing material and packaging can help to control stubble burning. Paddy straw can be used to make furniture, and it can also be used in packaging. This can help to reduce the amount of straw that is burned, and