1. What was the main reason for the commercialisation of agriculture in India during colonialism?
a. To increase British exports
b. To transform Indian agriculture
c. To create more jobs in the agricultural sector
d. To increase taxes on farmers
Explanation: There are a number of reasons why commercialisation of agriculture took place in India during colonialism. One of the main reasons was the British policy of allowing private ownership of land and to feed the British industries that it was taken up and achieved only in cases-of those agricultural products which were either needed by the British industries or could fetch cash commercial gain to the British in the European or American market. This led to the growth of a class of wealthy landowners who were able to invest in large-scale agriculture.
Another reason for the commercialisation of agriculture was the growth of the railways in India. The railways opened up new markets for agricultural produce, and also made it easier to transport goods to those markets.
The final reason for the commercialisation of agriculture was the introduction of new crops from abroad. These new crops, such as cotton and indigo, were in high demand, and farmers were able to make good profits by growing them.
All of these factors combined to create a situation in which large-scale, commercialised agriculture became the norm in India during the colonial period.
2. What was the impact of commercialisation of agriculture on Indian farmers?
a. It led to an increase dependency on chemical inputs
b. It led to the growth of cash crops
c. It led to the growth of the agricultural industry
d. It had no impact on Indian agriculture
Explanation: The commercialisation of agriculture has had a profound impact on Indian farmers. It has resulted in increased yields and improved incomes for farmers, but has also led to increased debt and dependency on chemical inputs.
The increased yields and incomes have been a welcome development for farmers, but the increased debt and dependency on chemical inputs has led to some challenges. Farmers have had to take on more debt to purchase expensive inputs, and have become more reliant on them to maintain yields. This has made farming more risky and less sustainable in the long-term.
The commercialisation of agriculture has also led to the displacement of small-scale farmers and the consolidation of landholdings. This has had a negative impact on rural communities and has increased inequality.
The commercialisation of agriculture has had both positive and negative impacts on Indian farmers. While it has increased yields and incomes, it has also led to increased debt and dependency on chemical inputs.
3. What was the impact of commercialisation of agriculture on the Indian economy?
a. It led to an increase in GDP
b. It led to an increase in the number of jobs
c. It led to an increase in agricultural productivity
d. It had no impact on the Indian economy
Explanation: The commercialisation of agriculture has had a profound impact on the Indian economy. It has led to an increase in agricultural productivity and has also created new employment opportunities in the rural sector.
The commercialisation of agriculture has also boosted the exports of agricultural products and has helped in the development of the rural infrastructure. It has also contributed to the overall growth of the Indian economy.
4. Which of the following was the main interest of the zamindar during the British rule in India?
a. The main interest of the zamindar was to produce cash crops
b. The main interest of the zamindar was to collect rent from the farmers
c. The main interest of the zamindar was to improve the condition of the agricultural sector
d. The main interest of the zamindar was to produce food crops
Explanation: The zamindars during the British rule in India were mainly interested in acquiring more land and extending their power and influence as well as collect rent from the farmers. They often engaged in fierce competition with each other to gain favor with the British authorities and to gain control over more territory. In addition, the zamindars were also interested in protecting their own interests and those of their tenants and laborers.
5. Which of the following statements reflects the condition of the agricultural sector in India during British rule?
a. The agricultural sector experienced huge stagnation and deterioration because of the drain of India’s wealth
b. The agricultural sector experienced huge stagnation and deterioration because of the land tenure system
c. The agricultural sector experienced huge stagnation and deterioration because of the decline of handicrafts
d. None of the above
Explanation: The agricultural sector in India experienced huge stagnation and deterioration because of the land tenure system during colonisation. The system favoured the rich and powerful, who owned the best land, while the Poor and marginalised were left with the worst land. This led to a decline in agricultural productivity and incomes, and created a large rural-urban divide. The situation was made worse by the fact that the British colonialists did not invest in developing the agricultural sector, preferring to focus on extractive industries such as mining. This left the agricultural sector in a very weak position, and it has only recently begun to recover.
6. Which of the following statements is an accurate description of the Indian economy on the eve of independence?
a. India was a net exporter of capital goods
b. India was a net exporter of primary products
c. India was a net exporter of industrial products
d. India was a net exporter of agricultural goods
Explanation: India was a net exporter of primary products during colonisation. This meant that the country was able to provide goods and resources to other parts of the world, helping to support the British economy. However, this also meant that India was heavily reliant on the British market, and when the British market collapsed in the late 19th century, India was left in a precarious position.
7. Which of the following was the major occupation on the eve of independence?
d. None of these
Explanation: Agriculture has always been a major part of the Indian economy and it was no different on the eve of independence. In 1947, nearly 70% of the population was still employed in agriculture and it contributed around 50% of the GDP. However, the sector was in a poor state and was in dire need of reform.
The Green Revolution of the 1960s helped transform Indian agriculture and made it more productive. Since then, the sector has grown significantly and today, agriculture employs around 54% of the workforce and contributes around 15% of the GDP. The sector has come a long way since independence but there is still a lot of room for improvement.
8. Which of the following activities is included in the primary sector?
d. All of these
Explanation: Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other goods by raising plants and animals. Agriculture is a vital part of the primary sector of the economy, which also includes forestry, fishing and mining.
The primary sector is important because it provides the raw materials that are used in manufacturing and other sectors of the economy. Agriculture is a vital part of the primary sector, as it is responsible for producing food and other essential goods.
Agriculture has a long history, and it is thought that it began around 10,000 years ago. Agriculture allowed for the domestication of plants and animals, which led to the development of civilizations. Agriculture is still an important part of the economy today, and it plays a vital role in providing food and other goods for the world.
9. What was the Zamindari system?
a. A system of forced labor
b. A system of crop sharing
c. A system of land buying
d. A system of tax collection
Explanation: The Zamindari system was a form of feudal land tenure in British India. Under this system, the Zamindar (landlord) was given the right to collect land revenue from the peasants on behalf of the British government. This system was abolished in 1947, after India gained independence from Britain.
10. How did the British attempt to increase agricultural production in India?
a. By introducing new crops
b. By clearing forests
c. By investing in irrigation
d. All of the above
Explanation: In an effort to increase agricultural production in India, the British implemented a number of changes to traditional farming methods. One of the most significant changes was the introduction of new crop varieties from England, which were well-suited to the Indian climate. The British also built a network of canals and irrigation systems to water crops, and implemented new agricultural practices such as crop rotation. These changes led to a significant increase in agricultural production in India, which was vital to the British economy.