1. Which of the following is not included in land reforms?
b. Cooperative farming
c. Drip irrigation
d. All of the above
Explanation: Drip irrigation is not included in any of the clauses of the land reforms in India. Land reforms were intended to reduce inequalities existing in land markets, where the poor farmers were exploited. Abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms and ceilings on land holdings were a part of these reform.
2. Who started the Zamindari system?
a. John Shore
b. L. Cornwallis
c. Lord Minto
d. William Bentinck
Explanation: L. Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari system in 1793 through the Permanent Settlement Act. It was introduced in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and Varanasi. Also known as Permanent Settlement System.
3. Which of the following statements is not true about the Zamindari system?
a. It was first implemented in Bengal
b. The landowner was made the owner of the land
c. Zamindar gave 80% of the total tax to the British and kept 20%.
d. Before independence, this practice was applicable to ??19% of India’s land
Explanation: As per the details of the Zaminadri System introduced by the British, the Zamindar had to give 90% of the total tax to the British and kept 10% with themselves.
4. Who brought up the Mahalwari system?
a. William Bentinck
b. L. Cornwallis
c. Sir John Shore
d. None of the above
Explanation: William Bentinck was the British Governor General who brought the idea of Mahalwari system. This system was introduced in North-West Frontier, Agra, Central Province, Gangetic Valley, Punjab, etc.
5. In which two places Mahalwari system was started?
a. Punjab and Haryana
b. Bengal and Bihar
c. Agra and Awadh
d. Maharashtra and Jammu Kashmir
Explanation: The Mahalwari system was introduced by Holt Mackenzie in 1822. The other two systems were the Permanent Settlement in Bengal in 1793 and the Ryotwari system in 1820. It covered the states of Punjab, Awadh and Agra, parts of Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh.
6. Land reform is covered under
a. Central list
b. State list
c. Concurrent list
d. None of the above
Explanation: The land reforms is a part of the State List which means the Central Government of India cannot interfere in the affairs until needed as per the Constitution.
7. Which of the following land revenue settlement was first to have concluded with the village community?
a. Permanent Settlement
b. Mahalwari Settlement
c. Ryotwari Settlement
d. None of these
Explanation: In 1822, Englishman Holt Mackenzie devised this system. The land revenue was collected from the farmers by the village headmen on behalf of the whole village (and not the zamindar).
8. In British revenue records Mahal was a revenue estate which may be a
a. Village or group of villages
b. Group of cities
Explanation: Mahalwari system is a system in which revenue is collected from a Mahal, which is a village or a group of small villages. William Bentinck introduced this system in Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India in the year 1833.
9. Under the Mahalwari settlement the charge of collecting revenue was given to the
c. Village headman
Explanation: According to the Mahalwari system, the charge of collecting the revenue and paying it to the company was given to the village headman, rather than the zamindar. This system was devised by Holt Mackenzie and came into effect in 1822.
10. The Munro system of revenue collection was applied in
a. Uttar Pradesh
b. South India
d. North East
Explanation: Ryotwari System was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820. This was the primary land revenue system in South India. Major areas of introduction include Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorg provinces of British India. In Ryotwari System the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants.